Trends and Sub-National Variation in Neonatal Mortality in India
Nandita Saikia, Jawaharlal Nehru University
Chandra Shekhar, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS)
Domantas Jasilionis, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research and Lithuanian Social Research Centre
Vladimir M. Shkolnikov, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research and New Economic School, Russia
Prior study showed that sluggish mortality decline in India since late nineties largely depends on sluggish infant mortality reduction. The latter largely depend on neonatal mortality, which constitutes 56 percent of all deaths.Earlier studies focused the role of socioeconomic factors affecting infant mortality in India. This study analyzed the trends, regional patterns and disparities on neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in India in 1971-2011. Decomposition of changes in NMR by time, state and residence was done using Sample Registration System data. Inequality measures, range and Dispersion Measures of Mortality were calculated to measure trend in regional inequality in NMR. Analysis shows reduction in NMR is stagnant even in the era of health system reforms started since 2005. It revealed presence of substantial regional and urban-rural disparity that present in NMR in India. Although absolute inequality in NMR among regions has decreased over time, relative inequality appears to increase over time.