Prevalence and Risk Factors for Pre-Eclampsia in Indian Women: A National Cross Sectional Study
Gagandeep K. Walia, Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI)
We examined the prevalence of pre-eclampsia and associated maternal, behavioural, dietary and socioeconomic and demographic risk factors in India by analyzing data of 39657 women age 15-49 years included in India’s NFHS-3, 2005-06, who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. 55.6% (n=22061) reported pre-eclampsia. Rural–urban and marked geographic variation were found with rates for pre-eclampsia ranging from 33% (Haryana) to 87.5% (Tripura). The odds of pre-eclampsia was higher among women with twin pregnancy (OR:1.53;95%CI:1.12-2.09), terminated pregnancy (OR:1.38;95%CI:1.30-1.48), women with severe to mild anemia, tobacco smoking (OR:1.91;95%CI:1.19-1.91), diabetes (OR:1.89;95%CI:1.44-2.49), asthma (OR:2.05;95%CI:1.59-2.65), residing in eastern, northeastern and central part of India with reference to their counterparts. Our study provides first empirical evidence of population level prevalence of pre-eclampsia and its associated risk factors in a large nationally representative sample of Indian women and indicate that modifiable risk factors exist.