Who Benefits Most from Shadow Education? The Heterogeneous Effects of SAT Preparation Activities on SAT Scores
Yool Choi, University of California, Los Angeles
The study uses data from the Educational Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to look at the heterogeneous effects of shadow education on SAT scores. I will examine variation in the effects on SAT scores depending on the individual likelihood of receiving shadow education, and I will summarize the systematic trend in effects. my research design can answer such questions as who is most likely to utilize shadow education, and who benefits most from shadow education. Does shadow education primarily benefit already advantaged students and thereby further increase the education gap (i.e., the enhancement function), or does it benefit students from less privileged backgrounds buy helping them to close the educational gap (i.e., the remedial function)? Overall, this study will reveal the social implications of shadow education in the context of the United States and provide insight into how to alleviate inequalities in educational opportunity.