Decline in Fertility between 1980 and 2010 in the African Countries Mostly Affected by HIV/AIDS: Analysis of Individual and Group Effects
Parfait Owoundi, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques (IFORD)
The decline in fertility has long been illustrated in demography and economics studies by many authors, including Karl Schwarz (1968); Cantrelle P. & Ferry B.( 1979); Knodel J.(1983); Bongaarts J.(1978, 1983-84 & 2005); JC Caldwell et al.(1989); Evina A.(1999); Desgrees et al. (2001); Lori S. Ashford (2006); K. Bietsch et al.(2013); etc... These authors identified the various factors that contribute significantly to the decline in fertility. Policies of birth control have also contributed to the decline in fertility in the world. But all these studies and policies have not highlighted the decline in fertility due to “Individual” and “Group” Effects, when population is affected by infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, STIs, TB, etc...). This approach of fertility decline is certainly not new, but it is based on two assumptions which suggest that leaders of population planning have obligations and important decisions in the fight of infectious diseases.