Trends and Effects of Bio-Demographic and Maternal Characteristics on Neonatal Mortality in Nigeria
Joshua O. Akinyemi, University of Ibadan
Elijah Bamgboye, University of Ibadan
Olusola Ayeni, University of Ibadan
Progress in neonatal survival lags behind that of under-fives while its determinants have not been adequately explored in many developing countries. This study investigates the temporal trends and factors associated with neonatal mortality in Nigeria. Children recode data from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for 1990, 2003 and 2008 were used to estimate Neonatal Mortality rate (NMR) using synthetic cohort life table techniques. The effects of selected maternal and bio-demographic variables were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Between 1990 and 2008, NMR stagnated at 41 per 1000 live births with rural-urban and regional differences. The results also showed that in 2008, antenatal care, caesarean section delivery, birth interval less than 24 months and maternal age less than 20 years were associated with neonatal mortality. Birth spacing need to be widely promoted and the quality of maternal and child health services improved to enhance the survival of neonates.