Infant Mortality in the Lutheran Population of Tartu (Estonia) at the End of 19th Century
Hannaliis Jaadla, Tallinn University
Using Lutheran parish registers (1897-1900) linked to the micro-data of the 1st Russian census of 1897 in Tartu, this study compares the level of infant mortality among social and ethnic groups in the Lutheran population at the end of 19th century.. Previous studies based on aggregate data have shown rather early onset of demographic transition, in particular with regard to parity-specific fertility limitation in Estonia, however the national average IMR at the end of 19th century appears considerably higher than in other European countries with early demographic with early demographic transition. The findings of micro-level analysis indicate that ethnicity had a strong effect on child’s survival prospects; children from the Baltic-German families having higher survival rates. In addition, paternal socio-economic characteristics were stronger predictors of infant deaths than mother’s level of education or participation in the labor force. Furthermore, being born out-of-wedlock and poor water supplies had a negative effect.